Monday, March 30, 2020
1. The short answer is that higher inventories do not provide an advantage in any of the nine competitive priority categories. The important point is that firms must have the Ã¢â¬Å"right amountÃ¢â¬ of inventory to meet their competitive priorities. The only relevant costs considered in this chapter are ordering costs, holding costs, and stockout costs. In the economic order quantity (EOQ) model, costs of placing replenishment orders tradeoff against the costs of holding inventory. Under the assumptions of the EOQ, average inventory is one-half of the order quantity. The number of orders placed per year varies inversely with order quantity. When we consider stockout costs, an additional inventory (safety stock), is held to trade-off costs of poor customer service or costs for expediting shipments from unreliable suppliers. In the lean systems chapter, we see order quantities (lot sizes) that are much smaller than the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ suggested by the EOQ model. As a result, lean systems average inventory is also much lower. We will write a custom essay sample on Parts Emporium Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Are there some other relevant costs of holding inventory that we have not considered in the EOQ model? If there are, a firm that ignores these costs will make the wrong inventory decisions. These wrong decisions will make the firm less competitive. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s examine the relationships between inventory and the nine competitive priorities discussed in the operations strategy chapter. We compare competitors H and L. They are similar in all respects except H maintains much higher inventory than does L. 1. Low-cost operations. Costs include materials, scrap, labor, and equipment capacity that are wasted when products are defective. When a process drifts out of control, competitor HÃ¢â¬â¢s large lot sizes tend to result in large quantities of defectives. The EOQ does not consider the cost of defectives, and erroneously assumes that setup costs are constant. Small lots cause frequent setups, but the cost per setup decreases due to the learning curve. Competitor L will enjoy competitive advantages with lower setup, materials, labor, equipment, and inventory holding costs. 2. Top quality. Superior features, durability, safety, and convenience result from improved designs. High inventories force competitor H to choose between scrapping obsolete designs or delaying introduction of product improvements until the old inventory is consumed. In either case, L gains a competitive advantage. 3. Consistent quality. Consistency in conforming to design specifications requires consistency in supplied materials, setups, and processes. Small lots made frequently tend to increase consistency. Again, advantage goes to L. 4. Delivery speed. Large lots take longer to produce than small lots. A customer will wait less time for competitor L to set up and produce orders made in small batches. 5. On-time delivery. Contrary to expectations, large inventories do not equate to on-time delivery. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s more like, lots of inventory equals lots of chaos. Big lots make big scheduling problems. Big lots get dropped, mishandled, and pilfered. Most lean companies experience dramatic improvement in on-time delivery. 6. Development speed. This response is similar to that given for top quality. Low inventories result in getting new designs to the market more quickly. 7. Customization. Lean companies usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t claim an advantage in customization. However, large inventories provide no advantage with regard to customization either. It remains unlikely that a customized product will be found in inventory, no matter how large. 8. Variety. Mass customizers compete on service or product variety. They will keep products at raw material or component levels until a customer orders a specific configuration. Inventories are at as low a level as possible. 9. Volume flexibility. Lean (low inventory) companies tend to produce the same quantity of every product every day, but they claim considerable volume flexibility from month to month. On the other hand, a large finished goods inventory can be used to absorb volume fluctuations. In summary, a case can be made that several competitive priorities are not considered in the EOQ model. It is sometimes difficult to place a dollar value on these competitive advantages, but the advantages invariably go to the low-inventory, small lot-size firm. So if the EOQ is too large, what is the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ lot size? According to the lean philosophy, the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ lot size is one. 2. The continuous review system requires the determination of two parameters: the order quantity and the reorder point. The ordering cost for each firm will decrease, which means that the economic order quantities will decrease. Because of this, there may be some implications for the logistics system. Smaller, more frequent shipments could require more costly less-than-truckload shipments. In addition, while the order quantities will decrease, the reorder points will also decrease because the lead times will be smaller. The supply chain should experience smaller pipeline inventories as a consequence. If the new information system also reduces the variance of demand or lead times, there can be additional safety stock savings. However, all of these benefits will come at some additional expense for the incorporation of the new system. There will be capital costs for equipment and potential training costs involved. 3. Organizations will never get to the point where inventories are unneeded. Inventories provide many functions and should be managed, not eliminated. It is impossible to eliminate uncertainties in the provision of products or services. In addition, unless materials can be transported instantaneously, there will always be pipeline inventories. Cycle inventories will exist unless we universally get to the point where production of single units is feasible. PROBLEMS 1. Lockwood Industries First we rank the SKUs from top to bottom on the basis of their dollar usage. Then we partition them into classes. The analysis was done using OM Explorer Tutor12. 1Ã¢â¬âABC Analysis. Cumulative % Cumulative % SKU # Description Qty Used/Year Value Dollar Usage Pct of Total of Dollar Value of SKUs Class 4 44,000 $1. 00 $44,000 60. 0% 60. 0% 12. 5% A 7 70,000 $0. 30 $21,000 28. 6% 88. 7% 25. 0% A 5 900 $4. 50 $4,050 5. 5% 94. 2% 37. 5% B 2 120,000 $0. 03 $3,600 4. 9% 99. 1% 50. 0% B 6 350 $0. 90 $315 0. 4% 99. 5% 62. 5% C 8 200 $1. 50 $300 0. 4% 99. 9% 75. 0% C 3 100 $0. 45 $45 0. 1% 100. 0% 87. 5% C 1 1,200 $0. 01 $12 0. 0% 100. 0% 100. 0% C Total $73,322 The dollar usage percentages donÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly match the predictions of ABC analysis. For example, Class A SKUs account for 88. 7% of the total, rather than 80%. Nonetheless, the important finding is that ABC analysis did find the Ã¢â¬Å"significant few. Ã¢â¬ For the items sampled, particularly close control is needed for SKUs 4 and 7. 2. Stock-Rite Inc. Computing the annual usage value for each SKU and rank ordering them highest to lowest, we get: SKU Annual Value ($) Cumulative Value ($) D205 9,690 9,690 U404 6,075 15,765 A: 55% A104 3,220 18,985 L205 3,035 22,020 B: 22% L104 2,005 24,025 S104 1,604 25,629 X205 1,603 27,232 C: 23% X104 1,500 28,732 One classification might be to group the top two items (i. e. , 25% of the SKUs) in A class accounting for 55% of the total value. The next two SKUs would be classified as B and the last four as C. The dollar usage percentages donÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly match the predictions of ABC analysis. For example, Class A SKUs account for only 55% of the total, rather than 80%. Nonetheless, the important finding is that ABC analysis did find the Ã¢â¬Å"significant few. Ã¢â¬ For the items sampled, particularly close inventory management is needed for SKUs D205 and U404. 3. Yellow Press, Inc. a. Economic order quantity b. Time between orders 4. Babble Inc. a. D =( 400 tapes/month)(12 months/yr) = 4,800 tapes/year b. Time between orders years or 2. 5 months 5. Dot Com a. b. Optimal number of orders/year = (32,000)/400 = 80 orders c. Optimal interval between orders = 300/80 = 3. 75 days d. Demand during lead time = L = (5 days)(32,000/300) = 533 books e. Reorder point = L + safety stock = 533 + 0 = 533 books f. Inventory position = OH + SR Ã¢â¬â BO = 533 + 400 Ã¢â¬â 0 = 933 books 6. Leaky Pipe Inc. a. b. Optimal number of orders = (30,000)/(775) = 38. 7 or 39 c. Optimal interval between orders = (300)/(39) = 7. 69 days d. Demand during lead time = L = (4 days)(30,000/300) = 400 units e. Reorder point = L + safety stock = 400 + 0 = 400 units f. Inventory position = OH + SR Ã¢â¬â BO = 400 +775 Ã¢â¬â 0 = 1175 units 7. SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Cat Hotel a. Economic order quantity = 90/week D = (90 bags/week)(52 weeks/yr) = 4,680 S = $54 Price = $11. 70 H = (27%)($11. 70) = $3. 16 = 399. 93, or 400 bags. Time between orders, in weeks b. Reorder point, R R = demand during protection interval + safety stock Demand during protection interval = L = 90 * 3 = 270 bags Safety stock = z? dLT When the desired cycle-service level is 80%, . = 15 = 25. 98 or 26 Safety stock = 0. 84 * 26 = 21. 82, or 22 bags c. Initial inventory position = OH + SR Ã¢â¬â BO = 320 + 0 Ã¢â¬â 0 320 Ã¢â¬â 10 = 310. Ã Because inventory position remains above 292, it is not yet time to place an order. d. Annual holding cost Annual ordering cost When the EOQ is used these two costs are equal. When , the annual holding cost is larger than the ordering cost, therefore Q is too large. Total costs are $789. 75 + $505. 44 = $1,295. 19. e. Annual holding cost Annual ordering cost Total cost using EOQ is $1,263. 60, which is $31. 59 less than when the order quantity is 500 bags. 8. SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Cat Hotel, revisited a. If the demand is only 60 bags per week, the correct EOQ is: D = (60 units/wk)(52 wk/yr) = 3,120 bags = 326. 54, or 327 bags If the demand is incorrectly estimated at 90 bags, the EOQ would be incorrectly calculated (from problem 7) as 400 bags. The total cost, working with the actual demand, is: We can see clearly now that the cost penalty of SamÃ¢â¬â¢s difficulty in foreseeing demand for kitty litter is $21. 31 ($1,053. 20 Ã¢â¬â $1,031. 89). b. If S = $6, and , the correct EOQ is: = 108. 85, or 109 bags The total cost, working with the actual ordering cost, is If the reduced ordering cost continues to be unseen, the cost penalty for not updating the EOQ is (573. 91 Ã¢â¬â 343. 96) = $229. 95. 9. A Q system (also known as a reorder point system) = 300 pints/week = 15 pints a. Standard deviation of demand during the protection interval: = 15 = 45 pints b. Average demand during the protection interval: Demand during protection interval = L = 300 * 9 = 2700 pints c. Reorder point R = average demand during protection interval + safety stock Safety stock = z? dLT When the desired cycle-service level is 99%, z = 2. 33. Safety stock = 2. 33 * 45 = 104. 85 or 105 pints R = 2,700 + 105 Ã¢â¬â 0 = 2,805 pints 10. Petromax Enterprises a. b. Safety stock = z? dLT = = (1. 28)(125) = 277. 13 or 277 units Reorder point= average lead time demand + safety stock = (3)(50,000/50) + 277 = 3,277 units 11. A continuous review system for door knobs. Find the safety stock reduction when lead time is reduced from five weeks to one week. Standard deviation of demand during the (five-week) protection interval is = 85 door knobs. Desired cycle service level is 99% (therefore z = 2. 33). Safety stock required for five-week protection interval: Safety stock = = 2. 33(85) = 198. 05, or 198 door knobs Safety stock required for one-week protection interval ?dLT = = = 85 door knobs = 85/ = 38. 01 door knobs. Safety stock = = 2. 33(38. 01) = 88. 57 or 89 door knobs Safety stock reduction Reduction = 198 Ã¢â¬â 89 = 109 door knobs. 12. A two-bin system. Ã¢â¬Å"The two-bin system is really a Q system, with the normal level in the second bin being the reorder point R. Ã¢â¬ Find cycle-service level, given: L = 2 weeks = 5 bolts = 53 bolts/weekR = 120 bolts Safety stock = R Ã¢â¬â L = 120 Ã¢â¬â (53*2) = 14 bolts Safety stock = z? dLT = 14 bolts ?dLT = = 5 = 7. 07 bolts z(7. 07) = 14 z = 1. 98 When z = 1. 98, the cycle-service level is 97. 67%. 13. Nationwide Auto Parts a. Protection interval (PI)= P + L = 6 +3 = 9 weeks Average demand during PI= 9 (100) = 900 units Standard deviation during PI= = 60 units b. Target inventory= (P+L) + z? P+L = 900 + (1. 96)(60) = 1,018 c. Order quantity= Target inventory Ã¢â¬â IP = 1,018 Ã¢â¬â 350 = 668 units presuming no SR or BO 14. A P system (also known as a periodic review system). Find cycle-service level, given: L = 2 weeks P = 1 week (P + L) = 218 boxes = 40 boxes T = 300 boxes T = Average demand during protection interval + Safety stock T = 218 + z(40) = 300 boxes z = (300 Ã¢â¬â 218)/40 = 2. 05 When z = 2. 05, cycle-service level is 97. 98 or 98%. 15. A Successful Product Annual Demand, D = (200)(50) = 10,000 units, H = ((0. 20)(12. 50)) = 2. 50 a. Optimal ordering quantity b. Safety stock = = (2. 33)(16) = 74. 56 or 75 units c. Safety stock will now be: (2. 33)(16) = 52. 72 or 53 units % reduction in safety stock= (75 Ã¢â¬â 53)/75 = 29. 33% d. Safety stock will be= (2. 33)(8) = 37. 28 or 38 units % reduction in safety stock= (75 Ã¢â¬â 38)/75 = 49. 33% 16. SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Cat Hotel with a P system a. Referring to Problem 7, the EOQ is 400 bags. When the demand rate is 15 per day, the average time between orders is (400/15) = 26. 67 or about 27 days. The lead time is 3 weeks ? 6 days per week = 18 days. If the review period is set equal to the EOQÃ¢â¬â¢s average time between orders (27 days), then the protection interval (P + L) = (27 + 18) = 45 days. For an 80% cycle-service level z = 0. 84 = 41. 08 Safety stock = = 0. 84(41. 08) = 34. 51 or 35 bags T = Average demand during the protection interval + Safety stock T = (15*45) + 35 = 710 b. In Problem 7, the Q system required a safety stock of 22 bags to achieve an 80% cycle-service level. Therefore, the P system requires a safety stock that is larger by (35 Ã¢â¬â 22) = 13 bags. c. From Problem 7, inventory position, IP = 320. The amount to reorder is T Ã¢â¬â IP = 710 Ã¢â¬â 320 = 390. 17. Continuous review system. a. Economic order quantity. or 894 units Time between orders (TBO) = Q/D = 894/20,000 = 0. 0447 years = 2. 32 weeks b. Weekly demand = 20,000/52 = 385 units For a 95% cycle-service level, z = 1. 65 Safety stock: = (1. 65)(100) = 233. 34, or 233 units Now solve for R, as R = L + Safety stock = 385(2) + 233 = 1,003 units c. i. Annual holding cost of cycle inventory ii. Annual ordering cost d. With the 15-unit withdrawal, IP drops from 1,040 to 1,025 units. Because this level is above the reorder point (1,025 1,003), a new order is not placed. 18. Periodic review system a. From Problem 17, or 894 units Number of orders per year = = 20,000/894 = 22. 4 orders per year. weeks P is rounded to 2 weeks. b. For a 95% cycle-service level, z = 1. 65. Therefore Safety stock = 200 units Safety stock = 1. 65(200) = 330 units, T = Average demand during the protection interval + Safety stock T = (385 * 4) + 330 = 1,870 units c. In Problem 17, with a Q system the safety stock is 233 units. Therefore, (330 Ã¢â¬â 233) = 97 more units of safety stock are needed. 19. Continuous review system a. Economic order quantity b. Safety stock. When cycle-service level is 88%, z = 1. 18. Safety stock = = (1. 18)(12) = 20. 03, or 20 units c. Reorder point R = L + Safety stock = 64(2) + 20 = 148 units. d. If Q = 200 and R = 180, average inventory investment is higher than necessary to achieve an 88% cycle-service level. The larger order quantity increases average cycle stock by 20 units, and the higher reorder point increases safety stock by 32 units. 20. Periodic review system a. From problem 19, EOQ = 160 weeks P is rounded to 3 weeks. b. For an 88% cycle-service level, z = 1. 18. Therefore Safety stock = 26. 83 units. Safety stock = 1. 18(26. 83) = 31. 66, or 32 units T = average demand during the protection interval + Safety stock T = (64 * 5) + 32 = 352 units 21. Wood County Hospital a. D = (1000 boxes/wk)(52 wk/yr) = 52,000 boxes H = (0. l5)($35/box)=$5. 25/box The savings would be $3,229. 16 Ã¢â¬â $2,861. 82 = $367. 34. b. When the cycle-service level is 97%, z = 1. 88. Therefore, Safety stock = = (1. 88)(100) = 1. 88(141. 42) = 265. 87, or 266 boxes R = L + Safety stock = 1000(2) + 266 = 2,266 boxes c. In a periodic review system, find target inventory T, given: P = 2 weeks L = 2 weeks Safety stock = = 200 units. Safety stock = 1. 88(200) = 376 units T = Average demand during the protection interval + Safety stock T = 1000(2 + 2) + 376 T = 4,376 units The table below is derived from OM Explorer SolverÃ¢â¬âInventory Systems. Notice that the total cost for the Q system is much less than that of the P system. The reason is that the optimal value of P was not used here. The optimal value is weeks. Continuous Review (Q) system Periodic Review (P) System z = 1. 88 Time Between Reviews (P) 2. 00 Weeks ? Enter manually Safety Stock 266 Standard Deviation of Demand d During Protection Interval 200 Reorder Point 2266 Safety Stock 376 Annual Cost $4,258. 32 Average Demand During Protection Interval 4000 Target Inventory Level (T) 4376 Annual Cost $7,614. 00 22. Golf specialty wholesaler a. Periodic Review System or 179 1-irons or 4. 0 weeks When cycle-service level is 90%, z = 1. 28. Weekly demand is (2,000 units/yr)/(50 wk/yr) = 40 units/wk L = 4 weeks Safety stock: z = (1. 28) = 10. 86, or 11 irons T = (P+L) + Safety stock = 40(4+4) + 11 = 331 irons. b. Continuous review system Safety stock = = (1. 28)(3) = 1. 28(3)(2) = 7. 68, or 8 irons R = L + Safety stock = 40(4) + 8 =168 irons 23. Osprey Sports. a. The economic order quantity is = 289. 83, or 290 lures. b. The safety stock and reorder point are = 12. 41 lures The z value for a 97 percent cycle-service level = 1. 88. The safety stock = 1. 88 (12. 41) = 23. 33, or 23 lures The reorder point = + Safety stock = (4)(10) + 23 = 63 lures. c. The total annual cost for this continuous review system is + (H)(Safety stock) = = $312. 83 24. FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife a. The continuous review system is specified by the fixed order quantity and the reorder point. We will use the EOQ for the order quantity. The order quantity is: = 244. 95, or 245 cows. The safety stock is: = 61. 64 cows. The z value for a 90 percent cycle-service level = 1. 28. The safety stock = 1. 28 (61. 64) = 78. 90, or 79 cows. The reorder point = + Safety stock = (30)(8) + 79 = 319 cows b. The system would operate as follows: Whenever the stock of cows drops to 319, order 245 more cows. c. The total annual cost for this continuous review system is + (H)(Safety stock) = = $243. 06 25. Muscle Bound To find the cycle-service level, we must determine the standard deviation of demand during lead time and then use the equation for total annual cost to solve for z. We will use the EOQ for the ordering quantity. The standard deviation of demand during lead time is = 5,078. 14 barbells The economic order quantity is = 3,538. 36, or 3,538 barbells The total annual cost (with z as a variable) is + (H)(Safety stock) = = $16,000 We now solve for z z = = 0. 8785, or 0. 88. This value of z corresponds to a cycle-service level of 81 percent. 26. Georgia Lighting Center. Using the demand data given in the problem statement, we extended text Table 12. 2 below the dashed line in the following way. The beginning inventory for day 7 is the ending inventory for day 6, which is 27 units. The demand for day 7 is 7 units, which leaves 20 units in inventory at the end of day 7. No orders are open to the supplier; consequently the inventory position is 20 units. Because 20 units exceeds the reorder point of 15 units, no new order is placed. Continuing in this manner, the inventory position at the end of day 9 drops below the reorder point; consequently a new order for 40 units is placed. That order will be received three business days later, or day 12. The complete simulation results with Q = 40 and R = 15 are: Open Beginning Orders Daily Ending Inventory Amount Day Inventory Received Demand Inventory Position Ordered 1 19 Ã¢â¬â 5 14 14 40 2 14 Ã¢â¬â 3 11 51 Ã¢â¬â 3 11 Ã¢â¬â 4 7 47 Ã¢â¬â 4 7 40 1 46 46 Ã¢â¬â 5 46 Ã¢â¬â 10 36 36 Ã¢â¬â Sat 6 36 Ã¢â¬â 9 27 27 Ã¢â¬â Mon7 27 Ã¢â¬â 7 20 20 Ã¢â¬â 8 20 Ã¢â¬â 4 16 16 Ã¢â¬â 9 16 Ã¢â¬â 2 14 14 40 10 14 Ã¢â¬â 7 7 47 Ã¢â¬â 11 7 Ã¢â¬â 3 4 44 Ã¢â¬â 12 4 40 6 38 38 Ã¢â¬â 13 38 Ã¢â¬â 10 28 28 Ã¢â¬â 14 28 Ã¢â¬â 0 28 28 Ã¢â¬â 15 28 Ã¢â¬â 5 23 23 Ã¢â¬â 16 23 Ã¢â¬â 10 13 13 40 17 13 Ã¢â¬â 4 9 49 Ã¢â¬â 18 9 Ã¢â¬â 7 2 42 Ã¢â¬â TOTAL 343 a. The average ending inventory is: or 19 units b. No stockouts occurred during any of the three cycles. myomlab Advanced PROBLEMS 1. Office Supply Shop The screen shot below is taken from OM Explorer Solver Ã¢â¬â Demand During Protection Interval Simulator. It shows the results of 500 trials. a. Given the simulation, the value of R must yield a service level that meets or exceeds the desired value of 95%. That value of R is 71 pens, which will yield a cycle service level of 96. 4%. b. The average demand during the protection interval is 35 pens. Since the reorder point is 71, the safety stock must be 71 Ã¢â¬â 35 = 36 pens. The high level of safety stock is necessary because of the high variance in the demand during protection interval distribution and the high variance in lead time. 2. Grocery store. a. The target level (T) should be 150 tubes of Happy Breath Toothpaste. This result comes from OM Explorer Solver Ã¢â¬â Demand During Protection Interval Simulator. b. Using OM Explorer once again, the cycle-service level for T = 150 would be 97. 8%. Eliminating the variance in supply lead times will significantly increase the cycle service level of the inventory. 3. Floral shop a. The EOQ for the continuous review system would be as follows. The demand during protection interval distribution is shown below. To attain at least a 90% cycle service level, the florist needs to set the reorder point at 166 baskets. b. As the output from OM Explorer Solver Ã¢â¬â Q-System Simulator shows, the average cost per day is $274. 74. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING: SWIFT ELECTRONIC SUPPLY, INC. This in-class exercise allows students to test an inventory system of their design against a new demand set. On the day of the simulation, students should come with sufficient copies of Table 1. Table Table1 12. 6 | Simulation Evaluation Sheet Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Beginning inventory position Number ordered Daily demand Day-ending inventory Ordering costs ($200 per order) Holding costs ($0. 05 per piece per day) Shortage costs ($2 per piece) Total cost for day Cumulative cost from last day Cumulative costs to date It is best to precede the simulation with a brief overview of the simulation process and the calculation of costs. The instructor may decide to require students to bring a computer to class and use a spreadsheet of their design to accomplish the tasks embodied in Table 1. Once everyone understands the simulation procedure, the instructor uses the Ã¢â¬Å"actualÃ¢â¬ demands in TN1, one at a time, and proceeding at a pace such that students have a chance to decide whether or not to order that period, how much to order, and calculate relevant costs. The instructor can stop at any point, using TN2 to benchmark studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ results against any of the four provided systems in this manual. A good idea is to stop at the halfway point in the simulation and ask students what their total costs are. The variance is often quite high. The same benchmarking comparisons can be done at the end of the simulation. The instructor can use the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ results to discuss differences in the systems tried, the importance of using safety stocks, and the value of perfect information. One of the provided systems in this manual utilizes the Wagner-Whitin (WW) approach, which is optimal for perfect forecasts. The variance in student results will be greater if this exercise is used as a prelude to a discussion of formal inventory systems (such as the Q-system or P-system). Alternatively, the exercise can be used after a presentation of the formal systems to give students a practicum for the theory. TN3 shows the cost structure and system parameters for the EOQ-system, Q-system and P-system. All the relevant case information and derived data are on the left side of the sheet, and key computed parameters for three systems are presented on the right side of the sheet. There are some other points that need to be addressed about TN3 through TN7: Ã¢â¬Å"Average Demand/dayÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Standard DeviationÃ¢â¬ come from a statistical analysis of the historical demand data in Table 12. 3. All the ordering quantities are rounded up as integers. Consequently, the associated costs might differ a little from what they actually are. The review time in the EOQ-system is actually up to the student. In TN4 we have used the EOQ divided by average daily demand. TN4 through TN6 show the application of the provided systems for the demand data in TN1. TN7 shows the results from WW system. In all of our reported results, inventory levels at the start of the day are used to make inventory decisions. This is consistent with the daily purchasing routine at Swift. Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) System Under this system, students order the EOQ each and every review period, which using the case data would be 3 days, without any forecasts of future demand or consideration of demand variability. TN4 shows the performance of this system. Students may elect to use varying review periods. If so, their results will differ from TN4. Q-system This system assumes that inventory levels are checked on a daily basis and compared to a Ã¢â¬Å"Reorder Point (RP). Ã¢â¬ If actual inventory level goes below the RP, an order of EOQ is placed; if above, no order will be placed. In the provided results, the RP is calculated by adding safety stock to average demand during the two-day lead time. The safety stock is designed to meet the 95 percent cycle service level. TN5 shows the results of the Q-system. P-system The inventory level is reviewed every three days, which is determined by dividing EOQ by average demand. The target inventory level is composed of two parts: Ã¢â¬Å"average demand during the protection interval,Ã¢â¬ which is the review period plus the lead time, and the Ã¢â¬Å"safety stock. Ã¢â¬ Every review period (three days in the provided results), an order is placed to bring the inventory position up to the target inventory level. TN6 shows the performance of the P-system. Wager-Whitin (WW) System The WW system is based on dynamic programming and assumes all demands are known with certainty. Consequently, it provides an absolute lower bound on the solution found by the students. The WW system assumes that stockouts are to be avoided. It is interesting to show the difference in total costs between the WW solution and another system because it demonstrates the cost of uncertainty. The solution using the WW system is shown in TN7. Also note that the lot sizes are shown in the day in which they must arrive. Actual release dates would be two days earlier. This implies that the first order for 1733 would have been placed in day 0, one day before the actual start of the simulation. TN 1. Actual Demand Data for Simulation CASE: PARTS EMPORIUM * A. Synopsis This case describes the problems facing Sue McCaskey, the new materials manager of a wholesale distributor of auto parts. She seeks ways to cut the bloated inventories while improving customer service. Back orders with excessive lost sales are all too frequent. Inventories were much higher than expected when the new facility was built, even though sales have not increased. Summary data on inventory statistics, such as inventory turns, are not available. McCaskey decides to begin with a sample of two products to uncover the nature of the problemsÃ¢â¬âthe EG151 exhaust gasket and the DB032 drive belt. B. Purpose The purpose of this case is to allow the student to put together a plan, using either a continuous review system (Q system) or a periodic review system (P system), for two inventory SKUs. Enough information is available to determine the EOQ and R for a continuous review system (or P and T for a periodic review system). Because stockouts are costly relative to inventory holding costs, a 95% cycle-service level is recommended. Inventory holding costs are 21% of the value of each item (expressed at cost). The ordering costs ($20 for exhaust gaskets and $10 for drive belts) should not be increased to include charges for making customer deliveries. These charges are independent of the inventory replenishment at the warehouse and are reflected in the pricing policy. C. Analysis We now find appropriate policies for a Q system, beginning with the exhaust gasket. Shown here are the calculations of the EOQ and R, followed by a cost comparison between this continuous review system and the one now being used. The difference is what can be realized by a better inventory control system. Reducing lost sales due to back orders is surely the biggest benefit. 1. EG151 Exhaust Gasket a. New plan Begin by estimating annual demand and the variability in the demand during the lead time for this first item. Working with the weekly demands for the first 21 weeks of this year and assuming 52 business weeks per year, we find the EOQ as follows: Weekly demand average = 102 gaskets/week Annual demand (D) = 102(52) = 5304 gaskets Holding cost = $1. 85 per gasket per year (or 0. 21 ? 0. 68 ? $12. 99) Ordering cost = $20 per order gaskets Turning to R, the Normal Distribution appendix shows that a 95% cycle-service level corresponds to a z = 1. 65. We then use the EG151 data to find the standard deviation of demand. Standard deviation in weekly demand () = 2. 86 gaskets Standard deviation in demand during lead time R= Average demand during the lead time + Safety stock = 2(102) + 1. 65(4. 04) = 210. 66, or 211 gaskets b. Cost comparison After developing their plan, students can compare its annual cost with what would be experienced with current policies. Cost Category Current Plan Proposed Plan Ordering cost $707 $313 Holding cost (cycle inventory) 139 314 TOTAL $846 $627 The total of these two costs for the gasket is reduced by 26 percent (from $846 to $627) per year. The safety stock with the proposed plan may be higher than the current plan, if the reason for the excess back orders is that no safety stock is now being held (inaccurate inventory records or a faulty replenishment system are other explanations). We cannot determine the safety stock level (if any) in the current system. The extra cost of safety stock for the proposed system is minimal, however. Only seven gaskets are being proposed as safety stock, and their annual holding cost is just another $1. 85(7) = $12. 95. Surely the lost sales due to back orders are substantial with the current plan and will be much less with the proposed plan. One symptom of such losses is that 11 units are on back order in week 21. A lost sale costs a minimum of $4. 16 per gasket (0. 32. ? $12. 99). If 10 percent of annual sales were lost with the current policy, this cost would be $4. 16(0. 10)(5,304) = $2,206 per year. Such a loss would be much reduced with the 95% cycle-service level implemented with the proposed plan. 2. DB032 Drive Belt a. New plan The following demand estimates are based on weeks 13 through 21. Weeks 11 and 12 are excluded from the analysis because the new productÃ¢â¬â¢s start-up makes them unrepresentative. We find the EOQ as follows: Weekly demand average = 52 belts/week Annual demand (D) = 52(52) = 2704 belts Holding cost $0. 97 per belt per year (or 0. 21 ? 0. 52 ? $8. 89) Ordering cost $10 per order gaskets Turning now to R, where z remains at 1. 65, we use the data in the DB032 table to find: Standard deviation in weekly demand () = 1. 76 belts Standard deviation in demand during lead time belts R= Average demand during the lead time + Safety stock = 3(52) + 1. 65(3. 05) = 161. 03, or 161 belts b. Cost comparison After developing their plan, students again can compare the cost for the belts with what would be experienced with current policies. Cost Category Current Plan Proposed Plan Ordering cost $ 27 $115 Holding cost (cycle inventory) 485 114 TOTAL $512 $229 With the belt, the total of these two costs is reduced by 55 percent. The safety stock with the proposed plan
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Eat Drink Man Woman Movie Review Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life Introduction Confucianism is a philosophical attribute used in China and which is based on the ethical values upheld by the Chinese community. The philosophy originated from the teachings of the KÃ¢â¬â¢ungu-fu-tzu also known as Confucius, a philosopher who has influenced the ethical system in Chinese society. It was first designed and centered on sociopolitical teachings but since then, it has shifted and it is now based on humanism (Sinaiko 12).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Ã¢â¬Å"Eat Drink Man WomanÃ¢â¬ Movie Review: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The concept which is a humanistic approach recognizes that human values are not stagnant and can be changed from one form to another. Three aspects are borne form this belief that people are teachable, improvable and perfectible as well. The ideology is focused on preserving the humane aspect of members of the society by employing different teachings based on different foundations. There are three foundations that govern the act of Confucianism in the Chinese republic. These are ren, yi and li (Sinaiko 15). The three foundations touch on different aspects of the Chinese culture. For instance, the ren is the act of being humane to other people in the community and it is collectively known as altruism. (Xinzhong 24) Yi on the other hand is the act of behaving in a morally upright manner. In this case, people are expected to do good things. The last aspect which is li requires that one be humble for the sake of the other person. In Chinese society, one opts to give up his or her life either passively or actively for ren and yi to be effectively achieved in the community (Xinzhong 25). From this philosophical context, it is obvious why the movie Ã¢â¬Å"Eat Drink Man and WomanÃ¢â¬ was created in such a manner. The idea was to point out the ethical context of the Chinese people specifically those in Taiwan. This paper is a philosophical review of this movie. In the review, the author provides their reflections on the main ideas of the movie as well as on Confucian ethics in traditional Chinese family life. The connection between Confucian ideas on one hand and Chinese family life on the other hand in the movie will be addressed. Eat Drink Man and Woman Movie Review: Plot Summary The movie was released in 1994 by the Taiwan Film Records under the directorship of Ang Lee. He puts into context Confucianism by dramatizing the manners of the Taiwan community based on facts about life, love, and modernity. He uses food to explain the ideology of modern people in the community (Vick 3). Synopsis There are three daughters in the family who are not married. They live with their father who is a widower. It is noted that food is the main aspect in the film whereby the father cooks traditional foods and none of the daughter likes his dishes. They perceive it as too outdated but t heir father loves them so much such that he encourages them to eat the food. During Sunday dinners, he prepares for them traditional food and the relationship in the family seems to grow deeper and deeper (Vick 5).Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The daughters are always afraid of him but in the film, the father can tell stories in different circumstances and this makes the daughters to have the urge to eat and have a deeper relationship with the father. Secretly, the middle sister loves the traditional food and aspires to be a cook in future even though the women are not encouraged to cook in the community (Vick 7). Ã¢â¬Å"Eat Drink Man and WomanÃ¢â¬ reveals the sexual and love scenarios in the society as the unattached daughters try to get engaged to other men in the surroundings who come to upset the calm at home. The middle daughter, Jia Chien, works with the air line services and gets a boyfriend from the office where she works. This changes the family relationship especially with the father (Vick 5). The first born daughter, Jia Jen, falls in love with a volleyball player and coach and she hunts for the man hysterically after realizing that she can be in love again on the basis of human desires. Initially, the older sister was so cynical about men. The youngest daughter, Jia Ning, is always in a constant sexual relationship and she eventually becomes pregnant while in college (Vick 9). The director of the movie introduces different characters in the film to highlight the family relationship. He especially highlights the characters of those men who are attracted to the ladies. For example, Li Kai in the office is attracted to the second born daughter. The climax of the film is when Mr. Chu begins dating Jia Ã¢â¬âNing. The gentleman tells her that he wants to end his addiction to love. He confesses that he is too weak to do so as he does not know how to approach the act of love (Vick 9). The different characters change the family especially in the way they relate to one another. The family had a happy ending as each member clings to what they feel suits them better. The father marries a beautiful wife as all his daughters also get married elsewhere (Vick 13). Philosophical Context of the Movie and Confucianism Ethical Issues The movie is a reflection of Chinese ethical values. For example, the generation gap is a vital reflection in this movie as portrayed by the three daughters refusing to eat the traditional food. But the second born daughter secretly likes the traditionally made food from his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s house and aspires to be a chef even though the Chinese society does not allow women to be chefs (Xinzhong 8). From a philosophical perspective, it is the opinion of this author that this is a very backward trend in the society as portrayed in the movie. Food takes center stage in this movie as portrayed by th e effects it has on the relationship between the father and his daughters. Love follows second as reflected in the other characters that become an obstacle in the normal family relationship. From the three foundations discussed by the writer earlier in this paper, these two themes clearly reflect modernity as far as generation gap is concerned. This is in regard to how people from different generations relate to one another.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Ã¢â¬Å"Eat Drink Man WomanÃ¢â¬ Movie Review: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Traditions seem to frighten the daughters away but the father seems to understand it. He convinces the daughters and succeeds in making one of them like the traditional meals (Vick 23). Confucianism is reflected here as the father shows humanity and patience when dealing with the daughters. The three foundations the writer explained earlier and which includes li demands that each individual sacrifice his or her life to accommodate other individuals. This is clearly seen in the second born daughter who secretly loves the traditional food. Here, loyalty is paramount to adhere to the cultural values which lack in the other daughters. Relationships As far as Confucian philosophy is concerned, the movie also reflects the kind of relationships that revolves around Chinese families. Relationship mounts to different levels which finally crescendos to the unexpected ending in the film. The Chinese culture provides that relationship is the centre of the Confucius ideology. In this case, it requires duties to be carried out in certain manners by certain individuals. This includes different relationships from different individuals. For instance, the relationship between parents and children as well as relationship among the children, juniors, and seniors as well (Xinzhong 24). The relationship in the film is reflected in the three daughters and the father. Some of the daughters are not aware of the place they occupy in the social order. This is clearly seen as the last born daughter behaves contrary to the Chinese norms. The Confucius requires young people to love their parents, when married to love the partner and so forth. All these are seen to recede in the background as modernism has taken root in the Chinese culture with fathers becoming cooks and daughters aspiring to become cooks too (Sinaiko 31). Women in Confucian Thought The film is revolves around the three daughters of a father who is widowed. The Confucian philosophy requires women to adhere to moral integrity. According to the philosophy, women are supposed to posses three qualities as far as a virtuous woman is concerned. First, they should be subordinate to the father before they get a husband. The woman is also supposed to be subordinate to the man she gets married to. Finally, the Chinese culture requires that the woman be subordin ate to the son after the husband passes on. All these makes up the Chinese woman as far as chastity is concerned (Xinzhong 26). Men on the other hand are supposed to remarry whenever they want and this is clearly evident in the movie as all of the daughters get married and the father also gets himself a beautiful wife hence the happy ending. However, the generation gap denies the characters in the film the opportunity to be virtuous women. This is seen as two of the daughters disregard the idea of the traditional food and start engaging in promiscuity (Xinzhong 29).Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Promiscuity is seen in the younger daughter who gets pregnant while in college. The first born daughter has also tested love which led to a painful experience for her and that is why she is cynical about men. But at the end of it all she resolves to get engaged to a coach (Vick 19). Parting Shot The movie has portrays different cultural aspects of the Chinese society specifically in Taiwan. The directorÃ¢â¬â¢s idea in the movie was to point out the moral loss in the current Chinese cultural practices. The traditional foods seem ridiculous to the current generation but it is the only way to make sure that the traditional norms are passed from one generation to the other by a father. Love and life norms are also some of the directorÃ¢â¬â¢s view in the film where Confucianism clearly illustrates the importance of adhering to the cultural values. Sinaiko, Herman. Reclaiming the Canon: Essays on Philosophy, Poetry, and History. New York: Yale University Press, 2010. Print. Vick, Tom . Asian Cinema: A Field Guide. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008. Print. Xinzhong, Yao. An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
The Twitter IPO - Essay Example One of the social media giants Facebook is also listed on Nasdaq but there are several reasons being put forward by Twitter for such a stance. One of the most prominent reasons for Twitter to avoid Nasdaq is the not so successful IPO of the Facebook. As many witnessed the glitches which made the Facebook suffer. There were many delays and technical problems. The systems of the Nasdaq did not go through well and it was a mess on the first day of the opening. The IPO is likely to take place late in 2013 or early 2014. The pundits are predicting figures above a billion dollars that is expected to bring in about for the social network website. There are several other factors for such decision. The trend of tech companies is quite high and many are thinking of a potential listing. Twitter also considers this a great time when the trends are hot and looking to avail such opportunity. A return of 28% has been recorded for tech IPOs this year and is the second best after the 51% of the healt h sector as being reported by morning star. As Paul Brad, an analyst with Renaissance Capital states tech companies are one of the strongest areas of the IPO market to date.2 Such decision is also likely to have impact on the wide range of stakeholders of the Twitter. This could well be related to the Legitimacy Theory which states that organizations take influence of their social and external environment (Tilling). This could well be seen here as Twitter also follows the social norms, beliefs and values that are currently prevailing in the industry. Many tech companies are trying to obtain listing. So does Twitter follow the footsteps of them and one of the influence or inspiration could be the IPO of the Facebook. The writer suggests that there are basically two levels of the theory; one is institutional level which involves government and other bodies in a wider context and the other one is organizational level in which the companies such as Twitter falls (Tilling). At this level organizations try to seek approval from the society in pursuit of their own goals. However, if they succeed they remain in existence otherwise they face dire consequences and fight for their survival. Once organizations expand and their operations become widely spread and they get acceptance from the society, there comes another responsibility on them. This can be of relevance with the Stakeholder Theory. The theory suggests that the vary existence of organizations is to create value for their shareholders over time.3 If setting aside the other ethical obligations of an organization; the core objectives of the organizations are to maximize the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ wealth. But then comes a range of stakeholders with different set of goals and expectations. It is the duty of the organizations to keep a balance between such stakeholders (Reynolds, Frank and David, 2006). Twitter here is also expanding its stakeholder on a large scale now. From previously, their main stakeholders were only the users of their website but now upon obtaining listing they will have the responsibility to serve a wide range of stakeholders. From shareholders to users to wider society at large. They will also be liable to some ethical practices and transparent disclosures. Latest acquisition of Staples In the latest news, it has been reported that the Staples has acquired Runa, a San Mateo, California based Start-up Company whose business is specialization and personalization in e-commerce technology.4 The biggest factor of such a decision was that Staples wanted to boost up its on-line sales in order to compete with Amazon and other tech advanced companies in the e-commerce space. The chairman and CEO of Staples, an office supplies
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Philosophy of law ( movie review ) - Essay Example These were the main areas that they did not want to thrive amidst the Jews in Germany. The Jewish synagogues were burnt to ashes and their children were expelled from school. Only the native religion and culture was to be upheld. The acts of the Nazis apparently relied on the philosophy of nationalism. Nationalism demands that a nation protects its interests and sovereignty with all means possible. Any intruding civilization is treated with inferiority and cruelty. In the case of Ã¢â¬Å"Night of Broken GlassÃ¢â¬ , nationalism had been exaggerated by its proponents. It was expansionist nationalism, marked with a radical military aggression towards the Jews. Nazism may be justified on the basis of sovereignty and prevention of culture distortion. Whereas the government and the Nazis were strongly supporting nationalism philosophy, a large faction of the natives seemed quite hesitant to act against the Jews. It may be said that these people were buying into communism; a classless form socialization that enhances unity. Communism, other than preserving unity, protects human dignity and rights, including
Monday, January 27, 2020
Consumerism and Culture: Designing Brands 1. Introduction Shopping is timeless and is part of our everyday life. It is a necessity and shopping can bring joy and pleasure. Although the economic crisis is increasing, people from all over the world will always go shopping. It is a basic/common and fun thing to do and it brings enjoyment and entertainment. Consumerism is used to describe the tendency of people identifying strongly with products or services they consume, especially those with commercial brand names and perceived status symbolism appeal, e.g. a luxury vehicle, designer clothing such as Gucci, Chanel and Louis Vuitton, or expensive jewelry. A culture that is permeated by consumerism can be referred to as a consumer culture or a market culture. When designing commercial space it is necessary to consider not just the type of activities that will be carried out, but also the different locations, functions and environment that they will require. All commercial premises, however, need a basic infrastructure that creates an efficient working environment and provides facilities that ensure excellent customer service. 2. Analysis 2.1. Consumerism and Design All products that are commercially successful would have had the consumer in mind at one point or another. Designs have added value when it can be traded and has potential to make an impact on the consumer market even if it already has apparent artistic merit and may not necessarily require to be bought and sold as would a commodity. An enviable and attractive project in this sense attracts investments because of their commercial potential, and in due course attains marketability, and fundamental value or quality. Capital and creativity and good design alone cannot promise commercial success. Design is the new currency for commodities of the next generation and must be tailored to meet the ever-changing cultural and demographic pattern of consumers. Social behavior affects the long-term investments that design companies will make. Ultimately this implies that branding companies will soon look at demography studies as an important element in the development strategy of their products. 2.2 THE STORE AS A HOME FOR THE BRAND Nowadays, all aspects of life are branded. Brands function literally as labels representing the attitude or lifestyle that an individual has chosen. Therefore brands stores need to offer much more than product for sale. They have to sell an identity, which the customer can literally make his own by buying a particular product. This identity is taken home not only in the form of purchase items but also as amenities that come with the product. People who are strongly connected to a brands talk about the brand store as if it were their second home. Stores fall into one of two categories, such as multi brand and a single brand, where the store sells only one brand. Single brand stores sells only a particular brands and therefore has no other competition. The brand has complete control over the entire situation. Products are displayed in a sea of space, and visual merchandising is powerful. The biggest danger faced by single brand store is the predictable product supply, which requires a careful effort to avoid the perils of boredom. Change is not easy to illustrate, especially when the turnover rate is low. [Ill. 1- Tods Building] [Ill. 2- Tods Facade] As we can see from Illustrations 1 and 2 of Tods building and Tods faÃ §ade, this boutique is an Italian shoe and bag brand Tods. Tods building has been design by Toyo ito and this building is organized by seven floor, which is the lower floors are boutique space, while the central and upper floors house administrative, multifunction area and commercial offices; the top two floors are used for conferences and events and as a roof garden. Keen to give Tods an identity that would make it stand out from the crowd of places devoted to conspicuous consumption, the Tokyo architect Toyo Ito with the specific brief to employ high quality materials and colors that would reflect Tods notion of Ã¢â¬Ënaturalness. The leather-good brand well known for its impeccably handcrafted shoes and bag as well as its great attention to the natural quality of leathers. The nature metaphor that has been applied to the store was drawn from Omotesandos long row of zelkova trees. According to toyo ito, Ã¢â¬Ëthe tree is an autonomous, natural object and therefore its shape has an inherent structural rationality. In a sense, producing a reasonable flow of structural loads with a pattern of superimposed tree silhouettes is a result of a perfectly rational through process. Toyo itos fondness for the outer skin that wraps a building is once again well represented. His pao(wrap) philosophy underpins much of his work. (up)this case study is so weird- and dunt know how to link with the next paragaph(down) What people stand for and what they believe in used to be an issue which were largely defined by the culture in which they were raised: family, local environment, education and religion influenced the way they see themselves. The local culture provides them with the symbolic tools to create a sense of identity. In the current global environment, people no longer limit themselves to traditional choices offered by local culture. The world has opened up. The Internet and all its possibilities form a whole new digital world, while the ease of travel makes physical distance appear shorter. For an Indonesian, talking to a Singaporean friend through an online chatting such as: Skype, MSN and etc, or visiting a relative who lives in the Singapore is easier and more convenient in the current day and age. Globalization is giving people the possibility to see the world out there, and it result in broadening many interests among people (consumers). They have become more open to different culture s and are able to relate to various lifestyles. It also resulted in a growth of cross-cultural contact and in the realization of a global market. Experiences are no longer determined completely by local elements: the world is the playing field. Roots will continue to define people, but the exposure to new experiences will provide them with different perspectives. As part of this process, traditional lifestyles start to lose authority and choices enter the picture. 2.3. Customer loyalty Retailers pay attention to customer relations and the retention of existing customers by means of loyalty programs and saving schemes. For example, we all have loyalty cards in our wallets. Where the main aim is t gain a price reduction, programs like these are not sufficient to develop client loyalty and to build up a mutually satisfactory relationship between retailers and customer. A company cannot buy a consumers loyalty. Trust and the beginning of a reciprocal relationship ensure that the customer keeps coming back. To achieve this, the retailer must be a good example and deliver added value. The challenge for retailer is to take advantage of the opportunities by organizing themselves in such a way that they fulfill a bridge function and by become the connecting factor between consumer and producer. The communities, feedback groups and testing panels that offer customers the chance to try out products and exchange experiences are sources of inspirations. The involvement of customer in the develop of services on offers and the realization of a transparent and efficient manufacturing process require completely new integral approach. The retail industry has the chance to develop into a platform that offers people the possibilities to create together, to share, and to further extend knowledge and experience. In this way, we can achieve supported solutions in areas such as innovation, logistics, resources deployment and time-to-time advantage. And, ultimately, customer will become satisfied ambassadors of their own brand. 2.4 Connecting to a Functional and Emotional brand element The search for personal identity helps define what is important and what you need to know to gain self-esteem, approval and recognition. People like to feel a sense of belonging, to be part of something bigger then themselves. One way to define oneself is to connect a brand to its culture. Consumers no longer buy products only because of their functional quality but also buying a brand that stand for something. A brand needs to find a way and to differentiate itself from its competitor. It needs to connect with the consumers and creating emotional elements can do this. The emotional side of the brand and the personality help people connect to the brands. Brands can have personalities as much as the same way people do. It is the brands personality that defines brands in terms of human characteristics. 2.5 Sizes and Location The crucial importance is the size and location of the store. There are department stores, boutiques, shopping arcades, stores representing only one brand (single brand store). A flagship store is the most exclusive type of single brand store. The primary focus of a flagship store is not a sell product but to persuade customer to adopt the brands lifestyle. Consequently, a single brand store or flagship store is a suitable retail environment for commercial charity, for the persuasion and obtaining of customers. 3. Design proposal The chosen site location for the design is located at no51-53 shop house at Armenian street, which is beside SMU (Singapore Management University), in front of vanguard building, under fort canning park and in the middle of city hall and Dolby Gout MRT area. This site is surrounded by parking area, and most of it behind of the shop houses. Base on the survey about human traffic car circulation, most of the user of this parking lot is the student from SMU(Singapore Management University),business man, shopper, that going to vanguard building, Stanford House and Stanford Court are also parked their cars behind the shop houses. The problem is after they park their car they will use a small path and it is located at the corner of the site. Physical phenomenon that people tent to use a shorter route or short cut rather than a longer route to get to a certain place. After analyses the trends of shopper I come out with a design solution. The program is to propose a flagship store together with a new design, which is to create a new shopping experience. This design will increase the number of shopper. The Shortcut will attach to the old building and creates a contradiction between the exiting old shop house and the new design (short cut). The shortcut will be built within the retail space to link from Armenian street to the car park. The design of the short cut will attract people attention to walk in and coincidently they might be going to the flagship store. (I havent arrange this part, should be 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 ) ling jieÃ¢â¬ ¦, help me to think about the abstract and conclusion.. :'( cant thinkÃ¢â¬ ¦. huhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhhuhuuhh CONSUMERISM A PERSPECTIVE OF FLAGSHIPSTORE CREATE A NEW SHOPPING EXPERIENCE References: Lloyd Jones, Peter, 1940-Taste today. United Kingdom: BPCC Wheatons Ltd,exter. Rem koolhaas, 2005-s,m,l,xl. New York: The monacelli press. Curtis, Eleanor, 2007-Fashion retail. New York: Liz sephton. Judy chung,Chuihua, leong,Sze Tsung 2002-Guide to shopping, project on the city. New York: Taschen Msnuelli,sara.2006-Design for shopping. London: Laurence king Messedat, Jons, 2007- Flagship stores. Los angles: Avedition Gmbh Manuelli, Sara, 2006- Design for shopping. united Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd Cheng, Kelley, 2005- Style shopping: shops showrooms, Singapore: Page one Publishing Ltd Bibliography: http://usj.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/35/5-6/981 www.ianlambertdesign.com
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Competency Goal #1 To establish and maintain a safe, healthy learning environment. One of the primary concerns in a preschool center based program is establishing and maintaining a safe, healthy learning environment. I will explain how I maintain this with examples in different areas and the goals I feel are important for a child to achieve. Two of the activities that I practice are fire safety and tornado drills. The purpose of fire/tornado drills is to let the children know where and what to do in case of and emergency situation.The most important reason for these drills enforces is to try and to teach the children to be calm and feel safe. We practice the drills monthly. The classroom is another area of significance for safety. The toys are checked daily, the room is clean and clutter free. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s personal belongings are put in his or her cubby and marked with their name. All medicines and chemicals are stored in a cabinet and are locked at all times. The room is set u p in a manner that my ParaÃ¢â¬â¢s and I are able to supervise the children at all times. The telephone numbers of each childÃ¢â¬â¢s parents are in a file cabinet located next to the office phone.All emergency numbers are posted next to the office phone. The outdoor play area is checked daily for debris and equipment is in good and stable condition. We practice hygiene habits such as washing hands before and after meals, after the use of the bathroom and after they have their diaper changed. By establishing this habit at a young age, the children will grow-up developing cleanliness and pride in taking care of themselves. I use a private room separate from the classroom when changing diapers and use the Universal Safety precautions as well.The room is clean and tidy. The toys are washed weekly and the diaper area after each change with Clorox wipes and a disinfecting spray. This helps to keep germs from spreading. Good nutrition is essential in young children. Serving well balance d meals by choosing foods from the Food Pyramid (4 basic food groups) is important. All of our meals and snacks are provided through our school meal service and is pre-portioned for each child. I also use nutrition as an overall theme by doing activities like art, stories, and food tasting projects.The children sit at tables and chairs; also use silverware that is size appropriate. Meal time is a learning experience so all the children serve themselves family style. The actual room is set in an organized manner with open stations for the children to see materials and are able to play freely. All of the centers are labeled and books are shelved in an orderly fashion. I have developed a daily schedule and weekly themes to provide stimulation and knowledge. Having the room structured assists me to meet my goals as a lead teacher.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
In Ã¢â¬ Education Is Not LuxuryÃ¢â¬ , Stephen Joel Trachtenberg discussed about that people should take school seriously and in his opinion, Ã¢â¬ Topics like these may be putting a squeeze on the time spent on literacy and numeracy. Ã¢â¬ Years ago, most American worked in farming or in finishing agricultural crops. However, Ã¢â¬ Agrarian calendar continues to dominate one facet of American lifeÃ¢â¬âeducation. Ã¢â¬Å", even we are no longer agrarian.Schooling was a luxury and it is a long process of educating the young but Ã¢â¬Å"America will never take schools seriously as long as they operate on the ancient agrarian calendarÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"they are open from only nine to three o'clock or some equivalent. Ã¢â¬ So people thought that Ã¢â¬Å"this schooling business is a part-time occupation. Ã¢â¬ So the schools have to do the right thing to make them important to people by spending time on literacy and numeracy. So the schools should be able to teach both acade mic subjects and other things.This would at least show that schools are serious. It could also help teachers to find a job and getting paid. Students would learn what they should learn. Ã¢â¬ Universities are driven by their double missions of learning and service and the compelling. However young students do not take the class seriously and they do not desired to learn, even have the opportunities to learn. In Ã¢â¬ Expanding OfferingsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬ many students come to school without any training in foreign languages, or that only couple of languages.And Ã¢â¬ many school districts must deal with immigrant children. Ã¢â¬ School calendar can help teachers to keep their teaching on track and teaching more. But there are some objections which against to achieve more cause they do not have money, most of learning do not take place at school and extending the school days and making the day longer. Response I strongly agree with Stephen's opinion cause these suggestions whic h he discussed about can really help students to understand why they have to study, what they have to study about and how to study more efficiently.Schools should make people to realize that they are important by spending time on literacy and numeracy. Schools also have to be responsible to the students like making sure they do not spend Ã¢â¬ additional time to teach what is already being taught. Ã¢â¬ They are also responding to what is available. Ã¢â¬ An atmosphere of learning without the first-rate instruction or the various tangibles and intangibles that make learning possible is nothing but a disappointment.Ã¢â¬ What's more, lengthening the school years can really help to convince Ã¢â¬ the rest of the world that schools are, at least, serious. Ã¢â¬ Secondly, Ã¢â¬Å"teachers working conventional hours and a typical work year, it would be possible to begin to pay teacher. Ã¢â¬ Finally, Ã¢â¬ it would accommodate all the things that teachers need to teach and young people need to learn. Ã¢â¬ In my opinion, these are good way to go through and making education more important and common.